# Parametric tests

## Power divergence test

`PowerDivergenceTest(x[, y]; lambda = 1.0, theta0 = ones(length(x))/length(x))`

Perform a Power Divergence test.

If `y`

is not given and `x`

is a matrix with one row or column, or `x`

is a vector, then a goodness-of-fit test is performed (`x`

is treated as a one-dimensional contingency table). In this case, the hypothesis tested is whether the population probabilities equal those in `theta0`

, or are all equal if `theta0`

is not given.

If `x`

is a matrix with at least two rows and columns, it is taken as a two-dimensional contingency table. Otherwise, `x`

and `y`

must be vectors of the same length. The contingency table is calculated using the `counts`

function from the `StatsBase`

package. Then the power divergence test is conducted under the null hypothesis that the joint distribution of the cell counts in a 2-dimensional contingency table is the product of the row and column marginals.

Note that the entries of `x`

(and `y`

if provided) must be non-negative integers.

The power divergence test is given by

where $n_{ij}$ is the cell count in the $i$ th row and $j$ th column and $λ$ is a real number determining the nature of the test to be performed:

- $λ = 1$: equal to Pearson's chi-squared statistic
- $λ \to 0$: converges to the likelihood ratio test statistic
- $λ \to -1$: converges to the minimum discrimination information statistic (Gokhale and Kullback, 1978)
- $λ = -2$: equals Neyman modified chi-squared (Neyman, 1949)
- $λ = -1/2$: equals the Freeman-Tukey statistic (Freeman and Tukey, 1950).

Under regularity conditions, the asymptotic distributions are identical (see Drost et. al. 1989). The $χ^2$ null approximation works best for $λ$ near $2/3$.

Implements: `pvalue`

, `confint(::PowerDivergenceTest)`

**References**

- Agresti, Alan. Categorical Data Analysis, 3rd Edition. Wiley, 2013.

## Pearson chi-squared test

`HypothesisTests.ChisqTest`

— Function.`ChisqTest(x[, y][, theta0 = ones(length(x))/length(x)])`

Perform a Pearson chi-squared test (equivalent to a `PowerDivergenceTest`

with $λ = 1$).

If `y`

is not given and `x`

is a matrix with one row or column, or `x`

is a vector, then a goodness-of-fit test is performed (`x`

is treated as a one-dimensional contingency table). In this case, the hypothesis tested is whether the population probabilities equal those in `theta0`

, or are all equal if `theta0`

is not given.

If `x`

is a matrix with at least two rows and columns, it is taken as a two-dimensional contingency table. Otherwise, `x`

and `y`

must be vectors of the same length. The contingency table is calculated using `counts`

function from the `StatsBase`

package. Then the power divergence test is conducted under the null hypothesis that the joint distribution of the cell counts in a 2-dimensional contingency table is the product of the row and column marginals.

Note that the entries of `x`

(and `y`

if provided) must be non-negative integers.

## Multinomial likelihood ratio test

`HypothesisTests.MultinomialLRTest`

— Function.`MultinomialLRTest(x[, y][, theta0 = ones(length(x))/length(x)])`

Perform a multinomial likelihood ratio test (equivalent to a `PowerDivergenceTest`

with $λ = 0$).

If `y`

is not given and `x`

is a matrix with one row or column, or `x`

is a vector, then a goodness-of-fit test is performed (`x`

is treated as a one-dimensional contingency table). In this case, the hypothesis tested is whether the population probabilities equal those in `theta0`

, or are all equal if `theta0`

is not given.

If `x`

is a matrix with at least two rows and columns, it is taken as a two-dimensional contingency table. Otherwise, `x`

and `y`

must be vectors of the same length. The contingency table is calculated using `counts`

function from the `StatsBase`

package. Then the power divergence test is conducted under the null hypothesis that the joint distribution of the cell counts in a 2-dimensional contingency table is the product of the row and column marginals.

Note that the entries of `x`

(and `y`

if provided) must be non-negative integers.

## t-test

`HypothesisTests.OneSampleTTest`

— Type.`OneSampleTTest(xbar::Real, stddev::Real, n::Int, μ0::Real = 0)`

Perform a one sample t-test of the null hypothesis that `n`

values with mean `xbar`

and sample standard deviation `stddev`

come from a distribution with mean `μ0`

against the alternative hypothesis that the distribution does not have mean `μ0`

.

`OneSampleTTest(x::AbstractVector{T<:Real}, y::AbstractVector{T<:Real}, μ0::Real = 0)`

Perform a paired sample t-test of the null hypothesis that the differences between pairs of values in vectors `x`

and `y`

come from a distribution with mean `μ0`

against the alternative hypothesis that the distribution does not have mean `μ0`

.

`EqualVarianceTTest(x::AbstractVector{T<:Real}, y::AbstractVector{T<:Real})`

Perform a two-sample t-test of the null hypothesis that `x`

and `y`

come from distributions with equal means and variances against the alternative hypothesis that the distributions have different means but equal variances.

`UnequalVarianceTTest(x::AbstractVector{T<:Real}, y::AbstractVector{T<:Real})`

Perform an unequal variance two-sample t-test of the null hypothesis that `x`

and `y`

come from distributions with equal means against the alternative hypothesis that the distributions have different means.

This test is sometimes known as Welch's t-test. It differs from the equal variance t-test in that it computes the number of degrees of freedom of the test using the Welch-Satterthwaite equation:

## z-test

`HypothesisTests.OneSampleZTest`

— Type.`OneSampleZTest(xbar::Real, stddev::Real, n::Int, μ0::Real = 0)`

Perform a one sample z-test of the null hypothesis that `n`

values with mean `xbar`

and population standard deviation `stddev`

come from a distribution with mean `μ0`

against the alternative hypothesis that the distribution does not have mean `μ0`

.

`OneSampleZTest(x::AbstractVector{T<:Real}, y::AbstractVector{T<:Real}, μ0::Real = 0)`

Perform a paired sample z-test of the null hypothesis that the differences between pairs of values in vectors `x`

and `y`

come from a distribution with mean `μ0`

against the alternative hypothesis that the distribution does not have mean `μ0`

.

`EqualVarianceZTest(x::AbstractVector{T<:Real}, y::AbstractVector{T<:Real})`

Perform a two-sample z-test of the null hypothesis that `x`

and `y`

come from distributions with equal means and variances against the alternative hypothesis that the distributions have different means but equal variances.

`UnequalVarianceZTest(x::AbstractVector{T<:Real}, y::AbstractVector{T<:Real})`

Perform an unequal variance two-sample z-test of the null hypothesis that `x`

and `y`

come from distributions with equal means against the alternative hypothesis that the distributions have different means.

## F-test

`HypothesisTests.VarianceFTest`

— Type.`VarianceFTest(x::AbstractVector{<:Real}, y::AbstractVector{<:Real})`

Perform an F-test of the null hypothesis that two real-valued vectors `x`

and `y`

have equal variances.

Implements: `pvalue`

**References**

- George E. P. Box, "Non-Normality and Tests on Variances", Biometrika 40 (3/4): 318–335, 1953.

**External links**